The following list takes the Physical Science Standard and defines, decribes, pictures, links and/or explains the topics outlined in the course. This list is derived directly from the standards so it will contain most of the material you need to know for the exam.

**PSc.1.1 Understand motion in terms of speed, velocity, acceleration, & momentum**.

**PSc.1.1.1 Explain motion in terms of frame of reference, distance, and displacement.**

**Motion**: any movement or

**change in position or time**.

**Frame of Reference**a framework that is used for the observation and mathematical description of physical phenomena and the formulation of physical laws, usually consisting of an observer, a coordinate system, and a clock or clocks assigning times at positions with respect to the coordinate system. HOW CAN YOU DETERMINE AN OBJECT IS MOVING! Your viewpoint as you observed its motion: toward, away, to the right or left, how fast, etc.

Note below the player dribbling the ball looks different based on your poistion or your frame of reference

**DISTANCE **a numerical description of how far apart objects are. Standard unit -

**meter (m)**

other units: millimeter' (mm) = 1/1000m,

centimeter (cm) = 1/100 m

kilometer (km) = 1000m

DISPLACEMENT the shortest distance from the initial to the final position of a point

**PSc.1.1.2 Compare speed, velocity, acceleration, and momentum using investigations, graphing, scalar quantities, and vector quantities.**

**Velocity**is the rate at which the position changes (see diagram)**Speed**

- . Instantaneous speed the motion rate of object at a particular time period or moment.

Explain acceleration as a relationship between velocity and time: acceleration = Vfinal - Vinitial / time

For a acceleration lesson go to: http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-1/Acceleration the following is a sample from the site

**Acceleration**is a vector quantity that is defined as the rate at which an object changes its velocity. An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity. constant acceleration changing acceleration

Use graphical analysis, solve for

__displacement, time, and average velocity__. Analyze conceptual trends in the**displacement vs. time graphs**such as constant velocity and acceleration.Use graphical analysis, solve for

__velocity, time, and average acceleration__. Analyze conceptual trends in the velocity vs. time graphs such as constant velocity and accelerationInfer how momentum is a relationship between mass and velocity of an object, p = mv The focus should be on the conceptual understanding the same momentum could be associated with a slow-moving massive object and a object moving at high velocity w/ a smallerl mass ( 100 kg object moving 1 m/s has the same momentum as a 1-kg object moving 100m/s)

NEWTON'S THREE LAWS of MOTION

Nweton's 1st law of motion written below is also called the

Nweton's 1st law of motion written below is also called the

**Law of Inertia**Newton's 2nd Law of Motion

The force acting on an object is equal to the mass of that object times its acceleration.” This is written in mathematical form as:

Double the force, you double the acceleration, but if you double the mass, you cut the acceleration in half.

The force acting on an object is equal to the mass of that object times its acceleration.” This is written in mathematical form as:

**F**=*m***a**looking at the units**F = kgm/s/s NEWTON or N****F**is force ,*m*is mass and**a**is acceleration.Double the force, you double the acceleration, but if you double the mass, you cut the acceleration in half.

PSc.1.2.1 Explain how

__gravitational force__affects the__weight__of an object and the velocity of an object in freefall Any object that is being acted upon only by the force of gravity is said to be in a state of free fall. There are two important motion characteristics that are true of free-falling objects:

- Free-falling objects do not encounter air resistance.
- All free-falling objects on Earth accelerate downwards at a rate of 9.8 m/s/s (gravity

PSc.1.2.2 Classify frictional forces into one of four types: static, sliding, rolling, and fluid

Friction generally resists motion and will produce heat -thermal energy

Example brake pads apply sliding friction to the rotor when pressed causing the car to slow to a stop

**Friction**: the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each otherFriction generally resists motion and will produce heat -thermal energy

Example brake pads apply sliding friction to the rotor when pressed causing the car to slow to a stop

**Static friction**forces from the interlocking of the irregularities of two surfaces will increase to prevent any relative motion up until some limit where motion occur

**Sliding Friction**the friciton between two objects that are in sliding contact. Also called kinetic friction

**Rolling Friction**is the resistance to motion experience by an object rolls upon another object

**PSc.3.1 Understand types of energy, conservation of energy & energy transfer**

**Thermodynamics**Therm =

**heat**dynamics ( branch of physics concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on

**motion**)

**Energy**: the ability to do work

**Heat:**energy that is transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in temperature. If two bodies at different temperatures are brought together, energy is transferred—i.e.,

**heat flows**—from the

**hot**ter body to the colder.

**Temperature:**

**measure of the average kinetic energy of all of the particles in an object. Measured with some form of a thermometer.**

**Thermal Expansion:**tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature, through heat transfer

**.**

**As an object increases in thermal energies, the molecules within the the object will move faster and faster thus hitting the thermometer more often and causing the liquid to expand and the temperature will rise.**

**Losing thermal energy causes the molecules to slow down and they will contact the thermometer less resulting in lower temperature.**

**TRANSFERING THERMAL ENERGY conduction, convection and radiation**

Conduction: is the transfer of energy through matter from particle to particle. It is the transfer and distribution of heat energy from atom to atom within a substance. (OBJECSTS MUST TOUCH)

**Convection:**the transfer of heat energy in a

__gas__or

__liquid__(fluids)by movement of currents. (It can also happen is some solids, like sand.) The heat moves with the fluid.

**Radiation:**transfer of heat by the actual movement of the warmed matter. Since there are no fluids (like air and water) in space, convection is not responsible for transferring the heat.

**2.1.2 Phase Changes ands States of Matter**

fusion,

**melting**: solid to liquid phase change

**boiling**, vaporization: liquid to gas phase change

**

**evaporation**: liquid to gas phase change of the particles on the outer surface only

**freezing**: liquid to solid phase change

**condensation**: gas to liquid phase change

**sublimation**: Solid to gas phase change

deposition: gas to solid

**PSc.3.1.2 Explain the law of conservation of energy in a mechanical system in terms of kinetic energy, potential energy and heat.**

**Potential Energy**the energy of a body or a system with respect to the position of the body or the arrangement of the particles of the system.

**Kinetic E**

**nergy**

**-**energy that an object possesses due to its motion.

Types of PE and

**KE****Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE)**is energy an object possesses because of its position in a gravitational field.

3 factors affecting GPE increase in any of these and the GPE Increases

**Height**measured in meters m GPE = mass x gravity x height

**Mass**measured in kilograms kg Gpe = kgm/s2m

**Gravity**measured in acceleration kg/m/s/ GPE = Joules

KINETIC ENERGY KE energy an object possesses due to its motion: dependent on its mass and velocity.

Formula:

Formula:

**KE = 1/2 m v****2**measured in**Joules** Relationship between kinetic energy, potential energy, and heat to illustrate that total energy is conserved in mechanical systems

**Law of Conservation of Energy**states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form into another**Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy + Thermal Energy (due to friction) = Mechanical Energy**

**WORK transfer of energy that occurs when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force.**

**Measured in Joules**

**Work = Force x Distance W = F x d W = Nm W = Joules**

PSc3.1.3 Explain work in terms of the relationship among the applied force to an object, the resulting displacement of the object, and the energy transferred to an object.

The amount of work done can be calculated by the equation: Work = Force x distance

Joules = Newtons x meter

The unit for work is Joules (J). One joule of work is done when a force of 1 Newton moves an object through a distance of 1 meter

Khan academy series of work definitions and problems

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/work-and-energy/work-and-energy-tutorial/v/introduction-to-work-and-energy

**WORK**When a force acts on an object and causes it to move through a distance, energy is transferred and work is done.Work is only done when there is movement against an opposing force. For e.g. lifting a book off the floor to put on a table, here the movement is from the floor to the table and the opposing force is the weight of the book.The amount of work done can be calculated by the equation: Work = Force x distance

Joules = Newtons x meter

The unit for work is Joules (J). One joule of work is done when a force of 1 Newton moves an object through a distance of 1 meter

Khan academy series of work definitions and problems

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/work-and-energy/work-and-energy-tutorial/v/introduction-to-work-and-energy

https://www.google.com/searchq=work+in+physics&rlz=1C1CHYZ_enUS618US618&espv=2&biw=1920&bih=979&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjIvJW3ovTJAhUBYSYKHRa9CmMQ_AUIBigB&dpr=1&safe=active&ssui=on#imgrc=_TkXrlOrUJzooM%3A

PSc.3.1.4 Explain the relationship among work, power and simple machines both qualitatively and quantitatively.

• Infer the work and power relationship: P= W/t = F(d)/t = Fv

Power =

time (s)

www.

or. P = W / t.

Determine the component simple machines present in complex machines – categorize a wedge and screw as variations of an inclined plane; a pulley and wheel & axle as variations of a lever.

Eureka Videos: Simple machines; https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLE7FA57A3EBACFFF2

Lever: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDfOzs28XyI&index=2&list=PLE7FA57A3EBACFFF2

Inclined Plane: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s5DkwLBpGRQ

Mechanical Advantage: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-huZw8Dq3JU

• Explain the relationship between work input and work output for simple machines using the law of conservation of energy

Define and determine ideal and actual mechanical advantage:

Define and determine efficiency of machines:

Good website for instruction for this

http://www.schoolphysics.co.uk/age11-14/Mechanics/Forces%20in%20motion/text/Machines_/index.html

Explain why no machine can be 100% efficient.

• Infer the work and power relationship: P= W/t = F(d)/t = Fv

Power =

__Work (J)__= Wattstime (s)

www.

**physics**classroom.com/class/energy/.../**Power**The Physics Classroomor. P = W / t.

**The standard metric unit of power is the Watt**. As is implied by the equation for power, a unit of power is equivalent to a unit of work divided by a unit of time. Thus, a Watt is equivalent to a Joule/second.Determine the component simple machines present in complex machines – categorize a wedge and screw as variations of an inclined plane; a pulley and wheel & axle as variations of a lever.

Eureka Videos: Simple machines; https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLE7FA57A3EBACFFF2

Lever: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDfOzs28XyI&index=2&list=PLE7FA57A3EBACFFF2

Inclined Plane: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s5DkwLBpGRQ

Mechanical Advantage: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-huZw8Dq3JU

• Explain the relationship between work input and work output for simple machines using the law of conservation of energy

Define and determine ideal and actual mechanical advantage:

Define and determine efficiency of machines:

Good website for instruction for this

http://www.schoolphysics.co.uk/age11-14/Mechanics/Forces%20in%20motion/text/Machines_/index.html

Explain why no machine can be 100% efficient.